Beryllium

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Symbol: Be
Beryllium does not occur in the native state.
Its abundance in the Earth's crust is 2.8 parts per million by weight, 4.6 parts per million by moles (ChC).

Among the common rock-forming minerals, beryllium content is generally highest in white micas, mostly muscovite, which contain up to 10 ppm beryllium, and cordierite. The principal source materials for the granites that spawn beryllium-bearing pegmatites are the clay and mica-rich marine sediments that form shale. Micas remain abundant through metamorphism up to the high metamorphic grade that produces schists. When such schists reach the pressure-temperature conditions at which they begin to melt, the white micas decompose over a narrow range of temperature, transferring some of their trace elements, including beryllium, to the magmas so formed. Muscovite-rich schists may generate granite magmas containing about 6 ppm beryllium. The processes that crystallize granite and lead to the formation of pegmatites may enrich beryllium sufficiently to saturate the pegmatite-forming magmas in beryl. The beryllium content of a few notable beryl-rich pegmatites can be as high as 205 ppm beryllium (R&M 90.2.138-153).

Beryllium-bearing minerals include:

Oxides
chrysoberyl

Hydroxides
behoite
clinobehoite

Phosphates
hydroxylherderite
roscherite
zanazziite

Nesosilicates
beryllite
euclase
gadolinite
hingganite

Sorosilicates
barylite
bertrandite
leucophanite

Cyclosilicates
beryl

Inosilicates
bavenite
epididymite
eudidymite

Phyllosilicates
bityite

Tectosilicates
danalite

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