Simple oxide, rutile group, a tetragonal paramorph of anatase (also tetragonal) and brookite (orthorhombic)
Ilmenorutile is a niobium-bearing variety of rutile
Specific gravity: 4.23(2)
Hardness: 6 to 6½
Streak: Greyish black
Colour: Red, blue, brown, yellow, violet
Solubility: Insoluble in hydrochloric and nitric acid; slightly soluble in sulphuric acid
Plutonic igneous environments
Rutile is found in high pressure, high temperature igneous rocks.
It is a common but not essential constituent of
eclogite, and it also may be found in
mica schist and
It often occurs as slender crystals inside quartz and mica. Rutile is found in considerable quantities in black sands associated with ilmenite, magnetite, zircon and monazite.
It is a mineral of the greenschist, amphibolite, granulite and eclogite facies.
At Mount Moliagul, Moliagul, Central Goldfields Shire, Victoria, Australia, small groups of blood-red to brownish rutile crystals have been found in cavities in quartz (AJM 21.1.44).
At the Mount Deverell variscite deposit, Milgun Station, Western Australia, rutile occurs in the country rock and also is included in veins of variscite that have been replaced by foggite or crandallite. Also as inclusions in quartz. The variscite deposits are hosted by marine sedimentary rocks (AJM 20.2.29).
At Magnet Cove, Arkansas, USA, pseudomorphs of rutile after brookite have been found (KL p140).
Hydrothermal alteration of titanium-bearing minerals commonly releases titanium, resulting in the formation of rutile or anatase (AofA). Rutile is the principle alteration mineral of ilmenite; it can replace ilmenite, and may in turn be associated with later growth crystals of ilmenite (R&M 16.2.100, AJM 18.2.26).
amphibole, chlorite, paragonite, ilmenite, quartz and calcite to garnet, omphacite, rutile, H2O and CO2
NaCa2(Fe2Mg3)(AlSi7)O22(OH)2 + Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8 + 3NaAl2(Si3Al)O10(OH)2 + 4Fe2+Ti4+O3 + 9SiO2 + 4CaCO3 → 2(CaMg2Fe3)Al4(SiO4)6 + 4NaCaMgAl(Si2O6)2 + 4TiO2 + 8H2O + 4CO2
In low-grade rocks relatively rich in calcite the garnet-omphacite association may be due to reactions such as the above (DHZ 2A p453).
amphibole, clinozoisite, chlorite, albite, ilmenite and quartz to garnet, omphacite, rutile and H2O
NaCa2(Fe2Mg3)(AlSi7)O22(OH)2 + 2Ca2Al3[Si2o7][SiO4]O(OH) + Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8 + 3NaAlSi3O8 + 4Fe2+Ti4+O3 + 3SiO2 → 2(CaMg2Fe3)Al4(SiO4)6 + 4NaCaMgAl(Si2O6)2 + 4TiO2 + 6H2O
In low-grade rocks relatively poor in calcite the garnet-omphacite association may be developed by the above reaction (DHZ 2A p453).
augite, albite, pyroxene, anorthite and ilmenite to omphacite, garnet, quartz and rutile
2MgFe2+Si2O6 + Na(AlSi3O8) + Ca2Mg2Fe2+Fe3+AlSi5O18 + 2Ca(Al2Si2O8) + 2Fe2+Ti4+O3 → NaCa2MgFe2+Al(Si2O6)3 + (Ca2Mg3Fe2+4)(Fe3+Al5)(SiO4)9 + SiO2 + 2TiO2
This reaction occurs at high temperature and pressure (DHZ 2A p449).
The PT diagram below illustrates that rutile is stable at a higher temperature than anatase ( Journal of Materials Science, 46.855–874).
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