Calcite

carbonate

limestone

Formula: CaCO3
Carbonate
Specific gravity: 2.7102(2)
Hardness: 3
Streak: White
Colour: Colourless, white, yellow, red, orange, blue, green, pink, purple
Solubility: Readily soluble in hydrochloric, sulphuric and nitric acid
Environments:

Pegmatites
Carbonatites (essential)
Sedimentary environments (typical)
Metamorphic environments
Hydrothermal environments
Basaltic cavities

Calcite is a common and widespread mineral. It occurs in limestone, marble and chalk, in all of which it is essentially the only mineral present. It is an important constituent of calcareous marl and calcareous sandstone. Water carrying calcium carbonate in solution and evaporating in limestone caves often deposits calcite as stalagtites, stalagmites and incrustations. Both hot and cold calcium-bearing spring water may form around the mouths of the springs cellular deposits of calcite in the form of limestone, known as travertine (formed by hot mineral springs) or tufa (formed when carbonate minerals precipitate out of ambient temperature water). Calcite occurs as a primary mineral in some igneous rocks such as nepheline syenite, carbonatites and pegmatites. It is a late crystallisation product in cavities in lavas, and it is also a common mineral in the oxidation zone of hypothermal (high temperature), mesothermal (moderate temperature) and epithermal (low temperature) hydrothermal veins associated with sulphide ores.
Carbonates such as calcite are essential constituents of kimberlite.
Calcite is an essential constituent of limestone, marl and skarn.
It is a common but not essential constituent of sandstone.
It also may be found in dolostone.

Calcite may occur in all metamorphic facies with the exception of the very high-grade eclogite facies.

At Bundoora, inner Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, ferroan calcite occurs in cavities in basalt as orange balls and bow-ties (AJM 20.1.33-37).

At the Thunder Bay Amethyst Mine, Thunder Bay District, Ontario, Canada, calcite has been found with sulphide inclusions (R&M 94.4.331-332).

At the Calton Hill quarry, Buxton, Derbyshire, England, UK, calcite crystals have been found coloured red by iron oxide, on quartz associated with minor goethite (RES p115, 116).

At the Odin mine, Castleton, Derbyshire, England, UK, calcite crystals have been found on dark purple fluorite (RES p129).

At Millclose mine, Darley Dale, Derbyshire, England, UK, calcite crystals have been found on a matrix of sphalerite and fluorite, some with minor pyrite and chalcopyrite (RES p95).

At Eyam, Derbyshire, England, UK, calcite is associated with sphalerite, fluorite and galena (RES p117).

At Ladywash mine, Eyam, Derbyshire, England, UK, calcite crystals have been found with a dusting of minute pyrite crystals, and calcite occurs on a fluorite - limestone matrix (RES p119, 120).

At the Riber mine, Matlock, Derbyshire, England, UK, calcite has been found with inclusions of chalcopyrite, malachite and copper, with occasional pyrite and rarely bornite (RES p68).

At the Magpie mine, Sheldon, Derbyshire, England, UK, calcite crystals have been found with a dusting of minute pyrite crystals (RES p115).

At the Hampstead Farm quarry, Chipping Sodbury, Gloucestershire, England, calcite crystals dusted with pyrite have been found, also calcite on pyrite overgrowing baryte, and calcite on marcasite coating baryte (RES p172, 173).

At Croft quarry, Blaby, Leicestershire, England, UK, calcite has been found with minor analcime on altered tonalite matrix (RES p186, 187). Pseudomorphs of calcite after laumontite have been found here, sometimes associated with later crytsals of analcime (RES p189, 190).

At the Church Gresley opencast coal mine, Ashby-de-la-Zouch, Northwest Leicestershire, Leicestershire, England, calcite occurs in septarian nodules (RES p226, 227).

At Breedon quarry, Breedon on the Hill, Northwest Leicestershire, Leicestershite, England, UK, iron-stained calcite crystals have been found covered with small acicular crystals of malachite (RES p203).

At Cloud Hill quarry, Breedon on the Hill, Northwest Leicestershire, Leicestershite, England, UK, calcite has been found with inclusions of chalcopyrite. Also a specimen has been found with minor attached dolomite (RES p205, 208).

At Lord Ferrises mine, Staunton Harold, Northwest Leicestershire, Leicestershire, calcite occurs with galena, baryte, sphalerite and chalcopyrite on dolomitised limestone (RES p218 to 223).

At Wotherton mine, Chirbury, Shropshire, England, UK, calcite occurs with chalcopyrite, pyrite and baryte (RES p285, 286).

At Snailbeach mine, near Minsterley, Shropshire, England, UK, calcite occurs with sphalerite and also with harmotome, quartz, chalcopyrite or galena (RES p270 to 275).

At Llynclys quarry, near Oswestry, Shropshire, England, UK, calcite occurs with dolomite (RES p294).

At Tankerville mine, Worthen, Shropshire, England, UK, calcite occurs with galena (RES p281).

At Cauldron Low quarry, Staffordshire, England, UK, calcite occurs with galena and sphalerite on limestone (RES p313).

At the Ecton mine, Staffordshire, England, UK, calcite occurs with chalcopyrite (RES p305 to 307).

At Hartshill, Nuneaton, Warwickshire, England, UK, manganoan calcite has been found with manganite (RES p321).

At Judkins quarry, Nuneaton, Warwickshire, England, UK, calcite has been found with baryte (RES p323).

At Cookes Peak mining district, Luna county, New Mexico, USA, calcite is associated with aragonite in cave-like formations, and it is also very common in cavities with ore minerals and fluorite (R&M 94.3.226).

Alteration

Calcite and aragonite are precipitated according to the following reactions:
Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is dissolved in rainwater forming weak carbonic acid:
H2O + CO2 → H2CO3
Carbonic acid dissolves limestone forming calcium bicarbonate
H2CO3 + CaCO3 → Ca(HCO3)2
This solution percolates into caves where calcium carbonate may be precipitated as calcite with the release of liquid water and gaseous carbon dioxide:
Ca(HCO3)2 ⇆ CaCO3 (solid) + H2O (liquid) + CO2 (gas) (R&M 91-4:329)
The net effect of these changes could be written as the reversible reaction
CaCO3 (solid) + H2CO3 (in solution) ⇌ Ca2+ + 2(HCO3)-
The forward reaction, solution of calcium carbonate, occurs in acid environments, and the reverse reaction, precipitation of calcium carbonate, occurs in strongly basic (alkaline) environments. (KB p62)

Camp Verde, Arizona, is known for pseudomorphs of calcite after glauberite. (R&M 87.1.18)

Alteration

aegirine, epidote and CO2 to albite, hematite, quartz, calcite and H2O
4NaFe3+Si2O6 + 2Ca2(Al2Fe3+[Si2O7](SiO4)O(OH) + 4CO2 → 4Na(AlSi3O8) + 3Fe2O3 + 2SiO2 + 4CaCO3 + H2O (DHZ 2A p511)

åkermanite and CO2 to diopside and calcite
Ca2MgSi2O7 + CO2 ⇌ CaMgSi2O6 + CaCO3
The maximum stability limit of åkermanite in the presence of excess CO2 is about 6 kbar. Below that pressure, at relatively lower temperatures, åkermanite reacts with CO2 to form diopside and calcite according to the reaction: (JVW p144)

albite, chlorite and calcite to Ca, Mg-rich jadeite, Al-rich glaucophane, quartz, CO2 and H2O
8Na(AlSi3O8) + (Mg4.0Fe2.0)(AlSi3O10)(OH)8 + CaCO3 → 5(Na0.8Ca0.2)(Mg0.2Al0.8Si2)6 + 2Na2(Mg3Al2)(Al0.5Si7.5)O22(OH)2 + 2SiO2 + CO2 + 2H2O
In low to intermediate metamorphism jadeite-glaucophane assemblages may arise from reactions such as the one above. (DHZ 2A p475)

calcium amphibole, calcite and quartz to diopside-hedenbergite, anorthite, CO2 and H2O
Ca2(Mg,Fe2+)3Al4Si6O22(OH)2 + 3CaCO3 + 4SiO2 = 3Ca(Fe,Mg)Si2O6 + 2Ca(Al2Si2O8) + 3CO2 + H2O
Diopside-hedenbergite occurs commonly in regionally metamorphosed calcium-rich sediments and basic igneous rocks belonging to the higher grades of the amphibolite facies, where it may form according to the above reaction. (DHZ 2A p272)

amphibole, chlorite, paragonite, ilmenite, quartz and calcite to garnet, omphacite, rutile, H2O and CO2
NaCa2(Fe2Mg3)(AlSi7)O22(OH)2 + Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8 + 3NaAl2(Si3Al)O10(OH)2 + 4Fe2+Ti4+O3 + 9SiO2 + 4CaCO3 → 2(CaMg2Fe3)Al4(SiO4)6 + 4NaCaMgAl(Si2O6)2 + 4TiO2 + 8H2O + 4CO2 In low-grade rocks relatively rich in calcite the garnet-omphacite association may be due to reactions such as the above. (DHZ 2A p453)

anorthite to calcite and kaolinite in the early Earth's atmosphere
CO2 + H2O + anorthite → calcite + kaolinite
CO2 + 2H2O + CaAl2Si2O8 → CaCO3 + Al2Si2O5(OH)4 (JVW p634)

anorthite, H2O and CO2kaolinite and calcite
2CaAl2 Si2O8 + 4H2O + 2CO2 ⇌ Al4Si4O10(OH)8 + 2CaCO3
Calcite is found as a low-temperature, late-stage alteraation product according to the above reaction. (DHZ 5B p128)

anorthite and calcite to meionite (scapolite series)
3Ca(Al2Si2O8) + CaCO3 ⇌ Ca4Al6O24(CO3)
This reaction occurs in the presence of a high CO2 pressure in an environment deficient in (Al+Na+K). (DHZ 4 p331)

antigorite and calcite to forsterite, diopside, CO2 and H2O
3Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + CaCO3 → 4Mg2SiO4 + CaMgSi2O6 + CO2 +6 H2O
This reaction has been found to occur in antigorite schist at about 3 kbar pressure and 400 to 500oC (greenschist facies). (DHZ 1A p263)

aragonite or calcite and Mg2+ (from Mg-rich fluid) to dolomite and Ca2+
2CaCO3 + Mg2+ ⇌ CaMg(CO3)2 + Ca2+

augite and CO2 to hypersthene, calcite and quartz
Ca(Mg,Fe)Si2O6 + CO2 → (Mg,Fe)SiO3 + CaCO3 + SiO2 (DHZ 2A p384)

bustamite, tephroite and calcite to glaucochroite and CO2
CaMn2+Si2O6 + Mn2+2(SiO4) + 2CaCO3 ⇌ 3CaMn2+(SiO4) + 2CO2 (DHZ 1A p348)

calcite, Ba2+, H2S and O2 to baryte, Ca2+, CO2 and H2O
CaCO3 + Ba2+ + H2S + 2O2 = BaSO4 + Ca2+ + CO2 and H2O
Baryte may be precipitated by the action of ore fluid and groundwater on calcite. (DHZ 5B p16)

calcite, Fe2+ and Mg2+ to ankerite and Ca2+
4CaCO3 + Fe2+ + Mg2+ = 2Ca(Mg0.5Fe0.5)(CO3)2+ 2Ca2+
Ankerite is believed to be formed from calcite hydrothermally according to the above reaction. (DHZ 5B p228)

calcite, hematite and quartz to andradite and CO2
3CaCO3 + Fe2O3 + 3SiO2 → Ca3Fe3+2Si3O12 + 3CO2

calcium amphibole, calcite and quartz to diopside-hedenbergite, anorthite, CO2 and H2O
Ca2(Mg,Fe2+)3Al4Si6O22(OH)2 + 3CaCO3 + 4SiO2 = 3Ca(Fe,Mg)Si2O6 + 2Ca(Al2Si2O8) + 3CO2 + H2O
Diopside-hedenbergite occurs commonly in regionally metamorphosed calcium-rich sediments and basic igneous rocks belonging to the higher grades of the amphibolite facies, where it may form according to the above reaction. (DHZ 2A p272)

diopside, CO2 and H2O to tremolite, calcite and quartz
5CaMgSi2O6 + 3CO2 + H2O = Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2 + 3CaCO3 + 2SiO2
Diopside is produced by the metamorphism of siliceous dolostone, and if water is introduced at a later stage tremolite may be produced from the above reaction, or by the reaction of diopside with dolomite. (DHZ 2A p276)

diopside and dolomite to forsterite, calcite and CO2
CaMgSi2O6 + 3CaMg(CO3)2 → 2Mg2SiO4 + 4CaCO3 + 2CO2
This is a high-grade metamorphic change occurring at temperature in excess of 600oC. (MOM, DHZ 5B p213)

diopside, dolomite, CO2 and H2O to actinolite and calcite
4CaMgSi2O6 + CaMg(CO3)2 + CO2 + H2O = Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2 + 3CaCO3
Diopside is produced by the metamorphism of siliceous dolostone, and if water is introduced at a later stage tremolite may be produced from the above reaction, or by the reaction of diopside with CO2 and H2O. (DHZ 2A p276)

diopside, dolomite and H2O ⇌ hydroxylclinohumite, calcite and CO2
2CaMgSi2O6 + 7CaMg(CO3)2 + H2O ⇌ 4Mg2SiO4.Mg(OH)2 + 9CaCO3 + 5CO2
In the nodular dolomites, clinohumite associated with calcite occurs in a narrow zone in the central parts of the nodules due to the above reaction

diopside, forsterite and calcite to monticellite and CO2
CaMgSi2O6 + Mg2SiO4 + 2CaCO3 → 3CaMgSiO4 + 2CO2
This reaction requires a high temperature. (DHZ 2A p271)

diopside-hedenbergite and CO2 to enstatite- ferrosilite, calcite and quartz
Ca(Mg,Fe)Si2O6 + CO2 → (Mg,Fe2+)SiO3 + CaCO3 + SiO2 (DHZ 2A p136)

dolomite and chert to talc and calcite
3CaMg(CO3)2 + 4SiO2 + H2O → Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 3CaCO3 + 3CO2
Metamorphism of siliceous carbonate rocks causes the formation of hydrous phases such as talc and tremolite. (DHZ 5B p127) This is a very low-grade metamorphic reaction occurring at temperature between about 150oC and 250oC. (MOM)

dolomite and muscovite to phlogopite, calcite, CO2 and Al2O3
3CaMg(CO3)2 + KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2 → KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2 + 3CaCO3 + 3CO2 + Al2O3
The excess alumina may be used to form spinel (DHZ 3 p51)

dolomite, K-feldspar and H2O to phlogopite, calcite and CO2
3CaMg(CO3)2 + KAlSi3O8 + H2O = KMg3AlSi3O10(OH)2 + 3CaCO3 + 3CO2
In the presence of Al and K the metamorphism of dolomite leads to the formation of phlogopite according to the above equation. (DHZ 5B p213)

dolomite and quartz to forsterite, calcite and CO2
2CaMg(CO3)2 + SiO2 → Mg2SiO4 + 2CaCO3 + 2CO2 In siliceous dolostone dolomite and quartz may react to form either diopside or forsterite, with diopside forming at a lower temperature than forsterite. (DHZ 2A p270, 1A p264)

dolomite, quartz and H2O to tremolite, calcite and CO2
5CaMg(CO3)2 + 8SiO2 + H2O → Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2 + 3CaCO3 + 7CO2
This is a metamorphic reaction in dolomitic limestone. (MOM p496)

dolomite and tremolite to forsterite, calcite, CO2 and H2O
Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2 + 11CaMg(CO3)2 → 8Mg2SiO4 + 13CaCO3 + 9CO2 + H2O
Dolomite can be metamorphosed to talc and calcite, then at higher temperatures the talc and calcite react to form tremolite. In turn tremolite reacts with dolomite to form forsterite, according to the above equation.

(DHZ 5B p213) enstatite and calcite to forsterite, diopside and CO2
3Mg2Si2O6 + 2CaCO3 ⇌ 2Mg2SiO4 + 2CaMgSi2O6 + 2CO2
enstatite is uncommon in the more calcareous hornfels due to reactions such as the above. (DHZ 2A p135)

enstatite, calcite and quartz to diopside and CO2
3Mg2Si2O6 + 2CaCO3 + 2SiO2 ⇌ + 2CaMgSi2O6 + 2CO2 enstatite is uncommon in the more calcareous hornfels due to reactions such as the above. (DHZ 2A p135)

ferro-actinolite, calcite and quartz to hedenbergite, CO2 and H2O
Ca2Fe2+5Si8O22(OH)2 + 3CaCO3 + 2SiO2 ⇌ 5CaFe2+Si2O6 + 3CO2 + H2O In some calc-silicate rocks hedenbergite is the product of metamorphism of iron-rich sediments, according to the above reaction, probably due to the instability of ferro-actinolite with rising temperature. (DHZ 2A.273)

forsterite, calcite and quartz to diopside and CO2
Mg2SiO4 + 2CaCO3 + 3SiO2 → 2CaMgSi2O6 + 2CO2
In high temperature environments with excess SiO2 diopside may form accoring to the above reaction. (DHZ 2A.271)

forsterite, calcite and quartz to monticellite and CO2
Mg2SiO4 + 2CaCO3 + SiO2 → 2CaMg(SiO4) + 2CO2

forsterite, diopside and calcite to monticellite and CO2
Mg2SiO4 + CaMgSi2O6 + 2 CaCO3 ⇌ 3CaMg(SiO4) + 2 CO2
This reaction occurs during contact metamorphism of magnesian limestone. (DHZ 1A p353)

forsterite and dolomite to calcite and hydroxylclinohumite
4Mg2SiO4 + CaMg(CO3)2 + H2O → Mg9(SiO4)4(OH)2 + CaCO3 + CO2
This is probably the reaction responsible for a forsterite- clinohumite assemblage in silica-rich dolomite in the aureole of the Alta granodiorite in Utah, USA.

forsterite, dolomite and H2O to calcite, hydroxylclinohumite and CO2
4Mg2SiO4 + CaMg(CO3)2 + H2O → Mg9(SiO4)4(OH)2 +CaCO3 + CO2
A forsterite-clinohumite assemblage in the silica-rich dolomite in the aureole of the Alta granodiorite in Utah, USA, is probably due to the above reaction. (DHZ 1A.264)

grossular, diopside, monticellite, calcite and H2O to vesuvianite, quartz and CO2
10Ca3Al2(SiO4)3 + 3CaMgSi2O6 + 3CaMg(SiO4) + 2CaCO3 + 8H2O ⇌ 2Ca19Al10Mg3(SiO4)10 (Si2O2)4O2(OH)8 + 3SiO2 + 2CO2 A common association in calc-silicate metamorphism can be represented by the above equation. Vesuvianite stability will tend to increase with increasing water and decrease as the activity of CO2 rises. (DHZ 1A.714)

hematite, wüstite, quartz and calcite to andradite, hedenbergite magnetite and CO2
2Fe2O3 + 2FeO + 5SiO2 + 4CaCO3 → Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3 + CaFe2+Si2O6 +Fe2+Fe3+2O4 +4CO2

hornblende, calcite and quartz to Fe-rich diopside, anorthite, CO2 and H2O
Ca2(Mg,Fe2+)3(Al4Si6)O22(OH)2 + 3CaCO3 + 4SiO2 = 3Ca(Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6 + 2Ca(Al2Si2O8) + 3CO2 + H2O
Fe-rich diopside occurs commonly in regionally metamorphosed calcium-rich sediments and basic igneous rocks belonging to the higher grades of the amphibolite facies. The above reaction is typical. (DHZ 2A.272)

kaolinite, dolomite, quartz and H2O to chlorite, calcite and CO2
Al2Si2O5(OH)4 + 5CaMg(CO3)2 + SiO2 + 2H2O ⇌ Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8 + 5CaCO3 + 5CO2
Chlorite often forms in this way from reactions between clay minerals such as kaolinite and carbonates such as dolomite. (KB p377)

laumontite and calcite to prehnite, quartz, H2O and CO2
CaAl2Si4O12.4H2O + CaCO3 → Ca2Al(Si3Al)O10(OH)2 + SiO2 + 3H2O + CO2
Prehnite and pumpellyite form from the Ca zeolites in the presence of calcite, as in the above equation. (DHZ 5B.127)

meionite (scapolite series) and augite to garnet, calcite and quartz
Ca4Al6O24(CO3) + 3Ca(Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6 ⇌ 3Ca2(Mg,Fe2+)Al2(SiO4)3 + CaCO3 + 3SiO2 (DHZ 4.334)

meionite (scapolite series), calcite and quartz to grossular and CO2
Ca4Al6O24(CO3) + 5CaCO3 + 3SiO2 ⇌ 3Ca3Al2(SiO4)3 + 6CO2 (DHZ 4.334)

monticellite and CO2 to åkermanite, forsterite and calcite
3CaMgSiO4 + CO2 ⇌ Ca2MgSi27 + Mg2O7 + CaCO3
At 4.3 kbar pressure the equilibrium temperature is about 890oC (granulite facies). (DHZ 1A.357)

monticellite and spurrite to merwinite and calcite
2CaMg(SiO4) + Ca5(SiO4)2(CO3) ⇌ 2Ca3Mg(SiO4)2 + CaCO3

phlogopite, calcite and silica to diopside, K-feldspar, H2O and CO2
KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2 + 3CaCO3 + 6SiO2 = 3CaMgSi2O6 + K(AlSi3O8) + H2O + 3CO2
In reaction zones between interbedded carbonate and pelitic beds of the calc-mica schist, phlogopite may alter according to the above reaction. (DHZ 2A.272)
The association of phlogopite and calcite is stable only in the absence of excess silica. (DHZ 3.51)

quartz and calcite to wollastonite and CO2
3SiO2 + 3CaCO3 ⇌ Ca3Si3O9 + 3CO2 (gaseous)
This is a contact metamorphic change occurring at temperatures from about 600°C such as in the immediate border zone of an igneous intrusion into limestone. (MOM p486, KB p417) High pressure inhibits the forward reaction by suppressing the formation of gaseous CO2. (KB p18) At 10 kbar pressure the equilibrium temperature is about 1,070oC (granulite facies). (SERC)

talc and calcite to dolomite and quartz
talc + calcite + CO2dolomite + quartz + H2O
Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 3CaCO3 + 3CO2 ⇌ 3CaMg(CO3)2 + 4SiO2 + H2O

(JVW p144) talc and calcite to tremolite dolomite, CO2 and H2O
2Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 3CaCO3 +4SiO2 → Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2 + CaMg(CO3)2 + CO2 +H2O
This is a low-grade metamorphic change, occurring at temperature between about 250oC and 450oC. (MOM)

talc, calcite and quartz to tremolite, CO2 and H2O
5Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 6CaCO3 +4SiO2 → 3Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2 + 6CO2 +2H2O
Metamorphism of siliceous carbonate rock causes the formation of hydrous phases such as talc and tremolite. (DHZ 5B.127, 213)

tremolite and calcite to diopside, dolomite, CO2 and H2O
Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2 + 3CaCO3 ⇌ 4CaMgSi2O6 + CaMg(CO3)2 + CO2 + H2O
The forward reaction is a diopside-forming metamorphic reaction. (DHZ 2A.249)

tremolite, calcite and quartz to diopside, CO2 and H2O
Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2 + 3CaCO3 + 2SiO2 → 5CaMgSi2O6 + 3CO2 + H2O
This is a medium-grade metamorphic change occurring at temperature between about 450oC and 600oC. (DHZ 2A p270, MOM)

tremolite and dolomite to forsterite, calcite, CO2 and H2O
Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2 + 11CaMg(CO3)2 → 8Mg2SiO4 + 13CaCO3 + 9CO2 + H2O (DHZ 1A.264)

tremolite, dolomite and H2O ⇆ hydroxylclinohumite, calcite and CO2
Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2 + 13CaMg(CO3)2 + H2O ⇆ 2(4Mg2SiO4.Mg(OH)2) + 15CaCO3 + 11CO2

Common impurities: Mn,Fe,Zn,Co,Ba,Sr,Pb,Mg,Cu,Al,Ni,V,Cr,Mo

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