Manganese

Manganese Mn is an element that occurs rarely in the native state.

Specific gravity: 7.01 calculated
Hardness: 6½
Streak: Dark grey
Colour: Steel-grey
Melting point: 1250oC
Common impurities
Environments

Placer deposits

Manganese has not been approved as a mineral species by the IMA.
It tarnishes on exposure to air and, when heated, oxidises to hausmannite (ChC).
The most stable oxidation state is Mn2+, which is a pale pink color in aqueous solutions. Also important is Mn4+, brown/black, which is found in ramsdellite, and Mn7+ found in the purple permanganate anion (Mn7+O4)1–. The Mn6+ oxidation state is green (ChC).
The abundance in the Earth's crust is 0.1% by weight, 360 parts per million by moles (ChC).


Localities

The first recorded locality was in unnamed placers, at Aldan, Sakha Republic, Russia. Manganese occurred as angular grains up to 0.8mm, in platinum group mineral-gold placers derived from serpentinised ultramafic rocks (olivine - orthoclase picrite) in a matrix of tephroite, spessartine, chromium-rich hausmannite and an unnamed manganese carbide, and associated with tephroite, spessartine, orthoclase, olivine and gold (AM88.933, Mindat).

Manganese-bearing minerals include:

Sulphides
alabandite
hauerite

Sulphosalts
benavidesite
ramdohrite
uchucchacuaite

Oxides
birnessite
bixbyite
braunite
chalcophanite
columbite-(Mn)
coronadite
crednerite
cryptomelane
galaxite
gerasimovskite
groutite
hausmannite
hetaerolite
hollandite
hubnerite
lindqvistite
magnetoplumbite
manganosite
plumboferrite
pyrolusite
pyrophanite
ramsdellite
ranciéite
romanèchite
tantalite-(Mn)
todorokite
wodginite
woodruffite

Hydroxides
asbolane
pyrochroite
tetrawickmanite
wickmanite

Carbonates
kutnohorite
rhodochrosite

Borates
fredrikssonite
jimboite
sussexite
wiserite

Sulphates
shigaite

Phosphates
alluaudite
bermanite
beusite
bjarebyite
eosphorite
faheyite
fairfieldite
fillowite
frondelite
gatehouseite
hagendorfite
hureaulite
jahnsite
kryzhanovskite
landesite
laueite
lehnerite
lithiophilite
lun'okite
mangangordonite
metaswitzerite
perloffite
pseudolaueite
purpurite
reddingite
robertsite
roscherite
samuelsonite
seamanite
sicklerite
stewartite
strunzite
switzerite
triplite
triploidite
varulite
väyrynenite
whiteite
wicksite
zodacite

Arsenates
allactite
arsenoclasite
brandtite
caryinite
chlorophoenicite
eveite
flinkite
fluckite
grischunite
hematolite
holdenite
jarosewichite
kolicite
kraisslite
manganberzeliite
parabrandtite
retzian
sarkinite
synadelphite

Vanadates
brackebuschite
fianelite
palenzonaite
pyrobelonite

Antimonates
katoptrite
långbanite
manganostibite

Arsenites
dixenite
magnussonite

Nesosilicates
alleghanyite
calderite
glaucochroite
hodgkinsonite
jerrygibbsite
leucophoenicite
manganhumite
sonolite
spessartine
tephroite

Sorosilicates
axinite-(Mn)
hejtmanite
hubeite
janhaugite
kentrolite
lavenite
macfallite
medaite
orientite
piemontite
pumpellyite-(Mn)
ruizite
tiragalloite

Inosilicates
bustamite
carpholite
gageite
inesite
johannsenite
kupletskite
manaksite
manganbabingtonite
manganoneptunite
natronambulite
pyroxmangite
rhodonite
saneroite
santaclaraite
serandite
schizolite

Phyllosilicates
caryopilite
eggletonite
friedelite
ganophyllite
gonyerite
kellyite
nelenite
neotocite
parsettensite
pyrosmalite-(Mn)
schallerite
yofortierite

Cyclosilicates
labuntsovite-Mn
roeblingite
steenstrupine-(Ce)

Tectosilicate
helvine

Unclassified silicates
bementite
perrierite-(La)

Back to Minerals