Manganese

manganese

hausmannite

ramsdellite

tephroite

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Manganese Mn is an element that occurs rarely in the native state.

Specific gravity: 7.01 calculated
Hardness: 6½
Streak: Dark grey
Colour: Steel-grey
Melting point: 1250oC
Environments

Placer deposits

Manganese has not been approved as a mineral species by the IMA.
It tarnishes on exposure to air and, when heated, oxidises to hausmannite (ChC).
The most stable oxidation state is Mn2+, which is a pale pink color in aqueous solutions. Also important is Mn4+, brown/black, which is found in ramsdellite, and Mn7+ found in the purple permanganate anion (Mn7+O4)1–. The Mn6+ oxidation state is green (ChC).
The abundance in the Earth's crust is 0.1% by weight, 360 parts per million by moles (ChC).


Localities

The first recorded locality was in unnamed placers, at Aldan, Sakha Republic, Russia. Manganese occurred as angular grains up to 0.8mm, in platinum group mineral-gold placers derived from serpentinised ultramafic rocks (olivine - orthoclase picrite) in a matrix of tephroite, spessartine, chromium-rich hausmannite and an unnamed manganese carbide, and associated with tephroite, spessartine, orthoclase, olivine and gold (AM88.933, Mindat).

Manganese-bearing minerals include:

Sulphides - the sulphide anion is S2-

alabandite
hauerite

Sulphosalts - sulphide minerals with the general formula AmBnXp, where A represents a metal , B usually represents semi-metal and X is sulphur or rarely selenium and/or tellurium

benavidesite
clerite
luboržákite
ramdohrite
uchucchacuaite

Oxides - the oxide anion is O2-

birnessite
bixbyite-(Mn)
buserite
chalcophanite
columbite-(Mn)
coronadite
crednerite
crichtonite
cryptomelane
filipstadite
galaxite
garpenbergite
gerasimovskite
gramaccioliite-(Y)
hausmannite
hetaerolite
hollandite
hübnerite
ixiolite-(Mn2+)
jacobsite
kuranakhite
lindqvistite
manganbelyankinite
manganosite
marokite
nsutite
plumboferrite
pyrolusite
pyrophanite
ramsdellite
ranciéite
romanèchite
senaite
tantalite-(Mn)
titanowodginite
todorokite
tululite
wodginite
woodruffite

Hydroxides - the hydroxide anion is (OH)-

asbolane
groutite
lithiophorite
pyrochroite
tetrawickmanite
wickmanite

Chlorides - the chloride anion is Cl-

vladkrivovichevite

Carbonates - the carbonate anion is (CO3)2-

kutnohorite
rhodochrosite

Monoborates - with a single boron anion (BO3)3- or B(O,OH)4

fredrikssonite
gaudefroyite
jimboite

Diborates - with double boron triangles and/or tetrahedra

sussexite
wiserite

Sulphates - the sulphate anion is (SO4)2-

saccoite
shigaite
apjohnite

Tellurates - salts of telluric acid H6Te6+O6

xocolatlite

Tellurites - the tellurite anion is (Te4+O3)2-

kinichilite
spiroffite

Sulphites - the sulphite anion is (SO3)2-

mikenewite

Phosphates - the phosphate anion is (P5+O4)3-

alluaudite
bermanite
beusite
bjarebyite
earlshannonite
eosphorite
faheyite
fairfieldite
fanfaniite
ferrorockbridgeite
fillowite
frondelite
gatehouseite
hagendorfite
hochleitnerite
hureaulite
jahnsite-(CaMnMg)
jahnsite-(CaMnMn)
jahnsite-(MnMnFe)
jahnsite-(MnMnMg)
jahnsite-(MnMnZn)
jahnsite-(NaMnMg)
jahnsite-(NaMnMn)
kayrobertsonite
kenngottite
kryzhanovskite
landesite
laueite
lehnerite
lithiophilite
lun'okite
manganflurlite
mangangordonite
manganoarrojadite-(KNa)
manganrockbridgeite
mengeite
metaswitzerite
niahite
panethite
perloffite
plumboperloffite
pseudolaueite
purpurite
reddingite
rewitzerite
robertsite
roscherite
ruifrancoite
samuelsonite
schoonerite
seamanite
sicklerite
stewartite
strunzite
switzerite
triplite
triploidite
varulite
väyrynenite
waterhouseite
whiteite-(CaMnFe)
whiteite-(CaMnMg)
whiteite-(CaMnMn)
whiteite-(MnFeMg)
whiteite-(MnMnMg)
whiteite-(MnMnMn)
wicksite
wyllieite
zodacite

Arsenates - the arsenate anion is (As5+O4)3-

aldomarinoite
allactite
arsenoclasite
brandtite
carlfrancisite
caryinite
chlorophoenicite
eveite
flinkite
grischunite
hematolite
holdenite
jarosewichite
kolicite
kraisslite
lombardoite
manganberzeliite
monteneroite
parabrandtite
piccoliite
retzian
sarkinite
sterlinghillite
synadelphite
vargite
villyaellenite

Hydrogen Arsenates - the hydrogen arsenate anion is (As5+O3OH)2-
fluckite

Vanadates - the vanadate anion is (V5+O4)3-

ansermetite
brackebuschite
fianelite
medvedevite
palenzonaite
pyrobelonite

Antimonates - the antimonate anion is (Sb5+O3)-

katoptrite
långbanite
manganostibite

Arsenites - the arsenite anion is (As3+O3)3-

dixenite
magnussonite

Nesosilicates - insular (Si4+O4)4- groups

alleghanyite
braunite
calderite
glaucochroite
henritermierite
hodgkinsonite
jerrygibbsite
leucophoenicite
manganhumite
mozartite
ribbeite
sonolite
spessartine
tephroite
welinite

Sorosilicates - (Si4+2O7)6- groups

alexkuznetsovite-(Ce)
alexkuznetsovite-(La)
amamoorite
arsenmedaite
axinite-(Mn)
barysilite
ferriandrosite-(Ce)
hejtmanite
hennomartinite
hubeite
janhaugite
kentrolite
lavenite
macfallite
manganvesuvianite
medaite
orientite
perrierite-(La)
piemontite
piemontite-(Sr)
pumpellyite-(Mn2+)
ruizite
samfowlerite
strontioruizite
taniajacoite
tinzenite
tiragalloite
tweddillite

Cyclosilicates - (Si4+nO3n)2n-

ikranite
labuntsovite-Mn
princivalleite
roeblingite
selsurtite
sergevanite
steenstrupine-(Ce)
tienshanite
tisinalite

Inosilicates - Single Chain - (Si4+nO3n)2n-

bustamite
carpholite
ershovite
gageite
johannsenite
kupletskite
laverovite
manganbabingtonite
marsturite
pyroxmangite
rhodonite
saneroite
santaclaraite
serandite
schizolite
taikanite

Inosilicates - Double Chain - (Si4+4nO11n)6n-

charoite
hjalmarite
inesite
johannsenite
manaksite
mangani-eckermannite
mangano-ferri-eckermannite
potassic-mangani-leakeite

Phyllosilicates - (Si4+2O5)2- groups

armbrusterite
badakhshanite-(Y)
bementite
caryopilite
eggletonite
friedelite
ganophyllite
gonyerite
kellyite
lipuite
manganoneptunite
nelenite
neotocite
norrishite
orlymanite
parsettensite
pyrosmalite-(Mn)
schallerite
yofortierite

Tectosilicate - [Al3+xSi4+OyO(2x+2y)]x−

helvine
verplanckite

Unclassified silicates

demagistrisite

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