Specific gravity: 8.93
Hardness: 2½ to 3
Streak: Copper red
Colour: Copper red
Solubility: Slightly soluble in hydrochloric acid; moderately soluble in sulphuric acid; readily soluble in nitric acid
Volcanic igneous environments
Small amounts of native copper have been found at many localities in the oxidation zones of copper
azurite. These minerals may be carried in solution down to the enriched zone,
where secondary copper may be redeposited.
Deposits of native copper are also found in cavities in
basalt lavas, resulting from the reaction of hydrothermal solutions with
iron oxide minerals, and the richest source of copper in the world is the
lava flows of the Keweenaw peninsula, USA
At Corocoro district, Pacajes province, La Paz department, Bolivia, copper pseudomorphs after aragonite cyclic twins have been found (KL p119).
At the Rubtsovskiy mine, Russia, copper pseudomorphs after cuprite have been found (KL p121, R&M 95.3.275).
At Tsumeb, Namibia, mottramite pseudomorphs after copper have been found (KL p201).
At the Bardon Hill quarry, Coalville, Leicestershire, England, UK, native copper is found associated with cuprite and altering to malachite (RES p194).
At the New Cliffe quarry, Stanton under Barton, Leicestershire, England, UK, native copper is found associated with cuprite and altering to malachite (RES p194).
At the Old Dominion mine, Gila county, Arizona, USA, copper pseudomorphs after cuprite have been found (R&M 94.2.169).
At the Magma mine, Pioneer District, Pinal county, Arizona, USA, native copper has been found sporadically throughout the mine, usually on a calcite matrix, although the metal is more commonly associated with the oxidised zones of copper deposits (R&M 95.1.84).
At Georgetown, Grant county, New Mexico, USA, copper pseudomorphs after azurite have been found (KL p120).
At the Kabwe mine, Central Province, Zambia, small amounts of native copper have been found associated with malachite, cuprite and chalcocite (R&M 94.2.124).
chalcocite and oxygen to native copper and sulphate ions
Cu2S(s) + 2O2(g) → Cu(s) + Cu2+(aq) + SO42-(aq)
If acidic copper sulphate solutions pass through the oxidation zone to below the water table, conditions usually change to reducing and the dissolved copper ions react with sulphide ions (S2-) to form copper sulphides such as chalcocite. If the water table falls, allowing the chalcocite to be exposed to the oxidation zone, then native copper can form according to the above reaction (JRS 18.14).
The diagram below is a Pourbaix diagram for Cu-Fe-S-H2O (IJNM 07(02).9.23). It shows the relationship between copper Cu, chalcopyrite CuFeS2, tenorite CuO, covellite CuS, cuprite Cu2O, chalcocite Cu2S, pyrite FeS2 and hematite Fe2O3.
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