Titanium

titanium

paulkerrite

coesite

kyanite

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Formula: Ti
Native element
Specific gravity: 4.503
Hardness: 4
Streak: Greyish black
Colour: Silver-grey
Melting point: 1,668oC
Boiling point: 3,287oC
Abundance: In the Earth’s crust, 0.56% by mass, 0.25% by moles; in the Solar System, 4 parts per million by mass, 100 parts per billion by moles (ChC). It is the 9th most abundant element in the Earth's crust, by mass.
Environments

Plutonic igneous environments
Metamorphic environments
Fumeroles

Two forms of native titanium have been found; the first, found in granite, crystallises in the hexagonal system, and the second occurs as minute inclusions in garnet from an ultra high pressure metamorphic complex, and crystallises in the tetragonal system (Mindat); also as microscopic inclusions in coesite eclogites (Webmin).

Localities

At the type locality, Orebody 31, Luobusha Mine, Qusum county, Shannan Prefecture, Tibet, China, titanium has been found in chromitite associated with kyanite and coesite (Mindat).

At the Great Fissure eruption, Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka Krai, Russia, hexagonal titanium has been described from fumaroles (Mindat).

Titanium has been recovered from heavy-mineral separates prepared from granite taken from the margin of the Bezymyannyy pluton, eastern Yakutia, USSR. The separates also contain native tin, lead, copper, iron, zinc, nickel, gold, aluminum and tin-antimony and copper-zinc compounds (AM 76.1435).

Titanium-bearing minerals include:

Borides - borides are usually covalent rather than ionic
jingsuiite

Silicides - the silicide anion is Si4-
zhiqinite

Phosphides - the phosphide ion is P3-
florenskyite
wenjiite

Oxides - the oxide anion is O2-
aeschynite
anatase
belyankinite
brannerite
brookite
botuobinskite
calciosamarskite
crichtonite
davidite-(Ce)
davidite-(La)
ecandrewsite
euxenite-(Y)
ferrotitanowodginite
fersmite
geikielite
gramaccioliite-(Y)
ilmenite
kaitianite
loparite-(Ce)
magnesiohögbomite-6N 12S
manganbelyankinite
mannardite
mirnyite
orthobrannerite
oxyyttrobetafite-(Y)
perovskite
polycrase
pseudobrookite
pyrophanite
qandilite
redledgeite
rossovskyite
rutile
sassite
senaite
srilankite
tantalaeschynite
tazheranite
thorutite
tistarite
titanowodginite
ulvöspinel
vigezzite

Carbonates - the carbonate anion is (CO3)2-
sabinaite

Orthoborates - the orthoborate anion is (BO3)3-
warwickite

Sulphates - the sulphate anion is (SO4)2-
calamaite

Phosphates - the phosphate anion is (P5+O4)3-
hochleitnerite
paulkerrite

Arsenates - the arsenate anion is (As5+O4)3-
achyrophanite
arsenatrotitanite
lehmannite
yurgensonite

Vanadates - the vanadate anion is (V5+O4)3-
trebiskyite

Antimonites - the antimonite anion is (Sb3+O3)3-
derbylite

Arsenites - the arsenite anion is (As3+O3)3-
asbecasite
cafarsite

Nesosilicates - insular (Si4+O4)4- groups
clinohumite
rubinite
schorlomite
titanite

Sorosilicates - (Si4+2O7)6- groups
bafertisite
bornemanite
bortolanite
cámaraite
chevkinite
epistolite
fersmanite
fresnoite
götzenite
hejtmanite
janhaugite
jingshajiangite
karnasurtite-(Ce)
lamprophyllite
låvenite
lomonosovite
mosandrite-(Ce)
murmanite
perrierite
perrierite-(Ce)
perrierite-(La)
rinkite-(Y)
vuonnemite

Cyclosilicates - (Si4+nO3n)2n- groups
baotite
bario-orthojoaquinite
benitoite
joquinite
labuntsovite
lemmleinite-(K)
orthojoaquinite
strontio-orthojoaquinite
taramellite
tienshanite
tisinalite
titantaramellite

Inosilicates - single chain - (Si4+nO3n)2n- groups
aenigmatite
astrophyllite
ershovite
kamenevite
kupletskite
lorenzenite
ohmilite
rhönite

Inosilicates - double chain - (Si4+4nO11n)6n- groups
kaersutite
tinaksite
zorite

Phyllosilicates - (Si4+2O5)2- groups
leucosphenite
neptunite

Unclassified Silicates
kalyuzhnyite-(Ce)
paqueite

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