Native element, lanthanide and rare earth mineral
Specific gravity: 6.78
Melting point: 798oC
Boiling point: 3,443oC
Solubility: Attacked by alkali solutions and all acids
Abundance: In the Earth’s crust, 60 parts per million by mass, 8.9 parts per million by moles; in the Solar System, 4 parts per billion by mass, 30 parts per trillion by moles (ChC).
Cerium is found among the lunar regolith fraction below 74 microns in size. The fraction consists mainly of glass, olivine, plagioclase, pyroxene and iron oxide minerals. Other associated reduced species include molybdenum, ytterbium and zinc (Mindat).
When present in compounds, cerium exists in both the trivalent state, Ce3+, and the tetravalent state, Ce4+ (ChC)
Cerium tarnishes in moist air and reacts with water to form cerium hydroxide plus hydrogen gas.
Cerium-bearing minerals include:
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