Calaverite

krennerite

petzite

Formula: AuTe2
Telluride, dimorph of krennerite
Specific gravity: 9.1 to 9.4
Hardness: 2&$189; to 3
Streak: Greenish to yellowish grey
Colour: Brass yellow to silver white
Environments

Hydrothermal environments

Calaverite occurs typically in veins in low-temperature hydrothermal deposits, but also in medium-and high-temperature deposits. Associated minerals include altaite, coloradoite, krennerite, rickardite, sylvanite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, tetrahedrite, sphalerite, stibnite and tennantite (HOM). Pseudomorphs of gold and very rarely coloradoite and melonite after calaverite have been reported (R&M 85.5.426-431, R&M 85.5.426-431).

At Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, calaverite is locally accompanied by a variety of other species including native gold, sylvanite, petzite, coloradoite, altaite, melonite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite, quartz, magnetite, ilmenite, calcite, ankerite, siderite, albite, mica, roscoelite, and chlorite. Excellent high-grade calaverite specimens associated with coloradoite and gold have been found here (R&M 85.5.426-431).

At the Golden Mile Mines, Kalgoorlie-Boulder, Kalgoorlie-Boulder Shire, Western Australia, Australia, calaverite occurs in calc schist associated with secondary magnetite and native gold (AJM 18.1.12).

At San Pedro Taviche, Oaxaca, Mexico; Laurani, La Paz Department, Bolivia, calaverite has been reported as a very rare mineral occurring with jordanite, chalcostibite, matildite, rickardite, and umangite (R&M 85.5.426-431).

At Painkiller Lake, Beatty Township, Cochrane District, Ontario, Canada, calaverite occurs with tetradymite (R&M 85.5.426-431).

At the Dome mine, Tisdale Township, Porcupine mining district, Timmins area, Cochrane District, Ontario, Canada, calaverite occurs with sylvanite and altaite (R&M 85.5.426-431).

At Bigstone Bay, Lake of the Woods, Kenora District, Ontario, Canada, calaverite occurs with tetradymite, petzite, pyrite, gold, chalcopyrite, and hessite (R&M 85.5.426-431).

At Kirkland Lake Area, Ontario, Canada, calaverite has been found as small compact masses or disseminations in quartz, calcite, or altered porphyry, in association with other tellurides, sulphides, and native gold (AM 34.347-349, R&M 85.5.426-431).

At the Macassa Mine, Kirkland Lake, Ontario, Canada, calaverite occurs disseminated throughout quartz, also with gold, filling fractures in quartz. Large areas of calaverite often have small particles of gold attached. The calaverite appears to have replaced the fine grained pyrite with which it is associated. It appears that the sulphides were formed first followed by tellurides and finally by gold (AM 34.347-349).

At the Miller Independence mine, Pacaud Township, Timiskaming District, Ontario, Canada, calaverite has been found with chalcopyrite, pyrite, and sphalerite (AM 34.347-349).

At La Vallée-de-l'Or RCM, Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Québec, Canada, calaverite occurs with tellurobismuthite (R&M 85.5.426-431).

At Louvicourt Goldfield Mine, Val d'Or, La Vallée-de-l'Or RCM, Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Québec, Canada, calaverite occurs in tourmalinised quartz with calcite, tellurobismuthite and native gold (R&M 85.5.426-431).

At the Horne Mine, Rouyn-Noranda TE, Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Québec, Canada, calaverite has been found in several pieces of greenstone withaltaite, petzite, and calaverite in coarsely crystalline masses or intergrown with tellurobismuthite (AM 34.347-349).

At the Robb-Montbray deposit, Rouyn-Noranda TE, Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Québec, Canada, calaverite occurs with montbrayite (R&M 85.5.426-431).

At the La-maque Mine, Bourlamaque Township, Quebec, Canada, calaverite has been found in a specimen of white quartz with small plates of tellurobismuthite and massive calaverite (AM 34.347-349).

At the Canadian Malartic GoId Mine, Fourniere Township, Quebec, Canada, calaverite has been found as occasional grains in massive milky quartz (AM 34.347-349).

At the Louvicourt Goldfields Mine, Louvicourt Township, Quebec, Canada, calaverite has been found in several specimens of tourmalinised quartz with much native gold and small areas of calaverite and tarnished tellurobismuthite in close association with calcite: (AM 34.347-349).

At the Benguet Consolidated Mine, Antamok, Mountain Province, Philippine Islands, calaverite has been found in a specimen of vuggy quartz with disseminated chalcopyrite, gold, sphalerite, tetrahedrite, galena, calaverite, and pyrite (AM 34.347-349).

At the French and Wood Mine, Altaville, Angels Camp Mining District, Mother Lode Belt, Calaveras county, California, USA, calaverite is found associated with altaite and petzite (R&M 85.5.426-431).

The type locality is the Stanislaus Mine, Melones, Carson Hill Mining District, Mother Lode Belt, Calaveras county, California, USA.

At the Cripple Creek Mining District, Teller county, Colorado, USA, calaverite occurs as a late middle stage vein mineral, in disseminated deposits, and less commonly massive. It is sometimes intergrown with chalcedony, fluorite, celestine, pyrite and stibnite. Calaverite is sometimes replaced by petzite, melonite and altaite. In veins it is commonly coated and obscured by later vein minerals, especially chalcedony. In oxidised deposits it may be replaced by native gold (Minrec 36.2.164-166). The calaverite contains small inclusions of pyrite and also replaces it (AM 34.347-349). The calaverite was most often seen as individual crystals on quartz crusts, and more rarely on fluorite and dolomite (R&M 85.5.426-431).

At the Cresson mine, Cripple Creek Mining District, Teller county, Colorado, USA, calaverite is replaced by petzite, melonite and altaite (R&M 85.5.426-431).

At the Last Dollar mine, Cripple Creek Mining District, Teller county, Colorado, USA, calaverite has been reported on chalcedony. It was most often seen as individual crystals on quartz crusts and more rarely on fluorite and dolomite (R&M 85.5.426-431).

At the WPH mine, Cripple Creek Mining District, Teller county, Colorado, USA, calaverite has been reported partially altered to emmonsite (R&M 85.5.426-431).

At the Star mine, Montgomery County, North Carolina, USA, calaverite occurs rarely in coarsely crystalline aggregates associated with other tellurides and native gold (R&M 85.5.426-431).

At the Republic Mining District, Ferry county, Washington, USA, calaverite is associated with a variety of other minerals including native gold, stibnite, realgar, sylvanite, naumannite and acanthite (R&M 85.5.426-431).

Common impurities: Ag

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