Yttrium

Yttrium is a rare earth element that does not occur in the native state. It occurs in uranium ores and is present in nearly all the rare earth minerals. It usually exists as a trivalent ion, Y3+, in its compounds, many of which are colourless. Its abundance in the Earth's crust is 33 parts per million by mass, whereas the content in lunar soil samples brought back from the Moon ranged from 54 to 213 parts per million (ChC).
Yttrium is extracted from bastnäsite-(Y) or xenotime-(Y), and from ion absorption clays, mostly in China. It is also extracted from samarskite-(Y) and fergusonite-(Y) (Dana).

Yttrium-bearing minerals include:

Oxides

aeschynite-(Y)
davidite
euxenite-(Y)
fergusonite-(Y)
samarskite-(Y)
yttrotantalite-(Y)

Carbonates

bastnäsite-(Y)
donnayite-(Y)
ewaldite
kimuraite-(Y)
lokkaite-(Y)
mckelveyite-(Y)
synchysite-(Y)
tengerite-(Y)

Phosphates

xenotime-(Y)

Arsenates

agardite-(Y)
chernovite-(Y)

Silicates

allanite-(Y)
britholite-(Y)
fluorbritholite-(Y)
gadolinite-(Y)
hingganite-(Y)
hyalotekite
iimoriite-(Y)
kainosite-(Y)
keiviite-(Y)
kuliokite-(Y)
rinkite-(Y)
rowlandite-(Y)
thalénite-(Y)
vyuntspakhkite-(Y)
yttrialite-(Y)

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